- Knott M,Voss DE: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation – patterns and techniques 2nd edition. New York Haper & Row publishers 1968
- Voss DE, Jonta MK, Meyers BJ: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation – patterns and techniques 3rd edition. New York Haper & Row publishers 1985
- Sullivan PE, Markos PD, Minor MA: PNF- Ein weg zum therapeutischen Üben. Stuttgart, Fischer Verlag 1985.
- Buck M, Beckers D, Adler S: PNF in Practice. Springer Verlag / publishers 2008.
- Hedin- Anden S: PNF Grundverfahren und funtionelles Training. München, Urban & Fischer1994
- Horst R: Motorisches Strategietraining und PNF. Stuttgart, Thieme 2005
- Horst R: Therapiekonzepte in der Physiotherapie-PNF. Stuttgart, Thieme 2008
Literature list, direct PNF related:
- Cornelius WL, Jensen RL, Odell ME: Effects of PNF stretching phases on acute arterial blood pressure. Can. Jo. Appl Physiology 1995 (2)222-229
- Nitz J, Burke B. A study of the facilitation of respiration in myotonic dystrophy. Physiotherapy research international 2002 (4) 228-238
- Yigiter K, Sener G, Erbahceci F, BayarK, Ülger ÖG, Akodogan S: A comparison of traditional prosthetic training versus PNF resistive gait training with trans-femoral amputees. Prosthetics and orthotics international 2002 (26) 213-217
- Mirek e, ea. Przydatnosc trójwymiarowej analizy lokomocji dla usprawniania ruchowego metoda PNF chorych na chorobe Parkinsona. Neurol. Neurochir. Poland 2003 (5) 89-102
- Wang RY. The effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in case of patients with hemiplegia of long and short duration. Physical Therapy 1994 (12) 25-32
- Reichel HS PNF: Gangschulung. Sportverletzung, sportschaden 1996 (10) A11-A20
- Luke C, Dodd KJ, Brock K: Outcomes of the Bobath concept on upper limb recovery follwing stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation 2004 (18) 888-898
- Ernst E: A review of stroke rehabilitation and physiotherapy. Stroke 1990 (21) 1081-1085
- Duncan P ea.: A Randomized, controlled pilot study of a home – based exercise program for individuals with mild and moderate stroke. Stroke 1998 (29) 2055-2060
- Duncan P ea. RCT of therapeutic exercise in subacute stroke. Stroke 2003 (34) 2173-2180
- Pohl M, Mehrholz J, Ritschel C, Rückriem S: Speed dependent treadmill training in ambulatory hemiparetic stroke patients : A RCT. Stroke 2002 (33) 553-558
- Kraft GH, Fitts SS, Hammond MC: Techniques to improve function of the arm and hand in chronic hemiplegia. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabilitation 1992(3) 220-227
- Shimura K, Kasai T: Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on the initiation of voluntary movement and motor evoked potentials in upper limb muscles. Human movement science 2002 (1) 101-113
- KofotolisN, Vrabas IS, Vamvakoudis E, Papanikolaou A, Mandroukas K: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training induced alterations in muscle fiber type and cross sectional area. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2005 (3):e11.
- Arai M, ea : Effects of the use of cross-education to the affected side through various resistive exercises of the sound side and settings of the length of the affected muscles. Hiroshima journal of medical science 2001 (3):65-73
- Marek SM ea. : Acute effects of static and PNF stretching on muscle strength and power output. Journal of athletic training 2005 (2) 94-103
- Myers JB, Lephart SM: The role of the sensorimotor system in the athletic shoulder Journal of athletic training 2000 (3) 351-363
- Epifanov VA, Shuliakovskii V V: The rehabilitative therapy of patients with osteochondrosis of the cervical spine and manifestations of hyper mobility by means of therapeutic physical exercise. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2000 (1):8-11.(Russian)
- Schneider F, Laps K, Wagner S: Chronic patello femoral pain syndrome: alternatives for cases of therapy resistance. Knee surgery sports traumatology arthroscopy 2001 Sep;9(5):290-295
- Klein DA, Stone WJ, ea. PNF training and physical function in assisted living older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity 2002 (10) 476-488
- Godges JJ, Matsen-Bell M, Thorpe D, Shah D: The immediate effects of soft tissue mobilization with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on glenohumeral external rotation and overhead reach. Journal of orthopedics sports and Physical Therapy 2003 (12) 713-718
- Kofotolis N, Eleftherios K: Effects of two 4-week PNF programs on muscle endurance, flexibility, and functional performance in women with CLBP. Physical Therapy 2006 (7) 1001-1012
- Church JB, Wiggins MS, Moode FM, Crist R: Effect of warm-up and flexibility treatments on vertical jump performance Jo. Strenght cond. Research 2001 (3):332-336
- Mc Mullen J, Uhl TL: A kinetic chain approach for shoulder rehabilitation. Journal of athletic training 2000 (3) 329-337
- Johnson GS, Johnson VS. The application of the principles and procedures of PNF for the care of lumbar spinal instabilities. The Journal of manual and Manipulative therapy 2002 (2) 83-105
- Magarey ME, Jones MA. Dynamic evaluation and early management of altered motor control around the shoulder complex. Manual Therapy 2003 (4) 195-206
- Sarburg PR, Schrader JW: Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Techniques in Sports Medicine: A Reassessment. Journal of athletic training 1997 (1):34-39.
- Weerapong P, Hume PA, Kolt GS: Stretching: mechanisms and benefits for sport performance and injury prevention. Physical Therapy Reviews 2004 (9) 189-206
- Chalmers G: Re-examination of the possible role of Golgi tendon organ and muscle spindle reflexes in proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation muscle stretching. Sports biomechanics 2004 (1) 159-183
- Funk DC, Swank AM, Mikla BM, Fagan TA, Farr BK: Impact of prior exercise on hamstring flexibility: a comparison of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretching. Journal of strength and conditioning research 2003 (3):489-492
- Wenos DL, Konin JG: Controlled warm-up intensity enhances hip range of motion. Journal of strength and conditioning research 2004 (3):529-533
- Davis DS, Ashby PE, Mc Cale KL, Mc Quain JA, Wine JM: The effectiveness of 3 stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility using consistent stretching parameters. Journal of strength and conditioning research 2005 (1):27-32.
- Feland JB, Marin HN: Effect of sub maximal contraction intensity in contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching. British journal of sports medicine 2004
- Schuback B, Hooper J, Salisburg L: A comparison of a self stretch incorporating PNF components and a therapist applied PNF technique on hamstring flexibility. Physiotherapy 2004 (3) 151-157
- Rowlands AV, Marginson VF, Lee J: Chronic flexibility gains: effect of isometric contraction duration during proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching techniques. Research Quarterly Exercise and sports 2003 (1):47-51.
- Bonnar BP, Deivert RG, Gould TE: The relationship between isometric contraction durations during hold-relax stretching and improvement of hamstring flexibility. Journal sports medicine and physical fitness 2004 (3) 258-261
- Deccicco PV, Fisher FM: The effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on shoulder range of motion in overhand athletes. Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 2005 (2):183-187.
- Moore MA, Kulkulka CG: Depression of Hoffmann reflexes following voluntary contraction and implications for proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation therapy. Physical Therapy 1991 (4):321-329; discussion 329-33.
- Ferber R, Gravelle DC, Osternig LR. Effect of PNF stretch techniques on trained and untrained older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity 2002 (10) 132-142
- Ferber R, Osternig LR, Gravelle DC: Effect of PNF stretch techniques on knee flexor muscle EMG activity in older adults. Journal of electromyography and kinesiology 2002 (12) 391-397
- Olivo SA, Magee DJ: Electromyographic assessment of the activity of the masticatory using the agonist contract – antagonist relax technique (AC) and contract – relax technique (CR). Manual therapy 2006 (2) 136-145
- Carter AM, Kinzey SJ, Chitwood LF, Cole JL: PNF decreases muscle activity during the stretch reflex in selected posterior thigh muscles. Journal of sport rehabilitation 2000 (9) 269-278
- Barros Ribeiro Cilento M: Evaluation of the efficacy of train protocols of the sit to stand movement, M. Cilento. Fisioterapi Brasil (6) 2006
- Olivo SA, Magee DJ: Electromyogrphic activity of the masticatory and cervical muscles during resisted jaw opening movement. Journal of oral rehabilitation 2007 (34) 184-194
- Rees SS, Murphy AJ, Watsford ML, McLachlan KA, Coutts AJ: Effects of PNF stretching on stiffness and force producing characteristics of the ankle in active women. Journal of strength and conditioning research 2007 (2) 572-577
- Bradley PS, Olsen PD, Portas MD: The effect of static, balstic and PNF stretching on vertical jump performance Journal of strength and conditioning research 2007 (1) 223-226
- Gabriel DA, Kamen G, Frost G: Neural adaptations to resistive exercise, mechanisms and recommendations for training practices. Sports Med 2006 (2) 183-189
- Sharman MJ, Cresswell AG, Riek S: Prorioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching, mechanisms and clinical implications. Sports Med 2006 (11) 929-939
- Carlson M, Hadlock T: Physical Therapist Management following rotator cuff repair for a patient with postpolio syndrome, Case Report. Physical Therapy 2007 (87) 179-192
- Namura M, Motoyoshi M, Namura Y, Shimizu N: The effect of PNF training on the facial profile. Journal of oral science 2008 (1) 45-51
Literature list EBP related:
1. Maher CG, Sherrington C, Elkins M, Herbert RD, Moseley AM: Challenges for EBP: Accesing and interpreting High-Quality evidence on therapy. Physical therapy 2004 (7) 644-654
2. Straus SE, Sacket DL: Getting research findings into practice. BMJ 1998 (8) 339-342
3. IPNFA, educational committee: Course curriculum content, teaching units. www.ipnfa.org .
4. Herbert R, Jamtvedt G, Mead J, Hagen KB: Outcome measures measure outcomes, not effects of intervention. Australian journal of physiotherapy 2005 3-4 (editorial)
Literature list Motor learning related:
- Charlton JL, Motor control issues and clinical applications. Physiotherapie theory and practice 1994 (10) 185-190
- Corcos DM, Strategies underlying the control of disordered movement. Physical Therapy 1991 (71) 25-38
- Frank JS, Earl M, Coördination of posture and movement. Physical Therapy 1990 (12) 109-117
- Lee TD, Swanson LR, Hall AL, What is repeated in a repetition? Effects of practice conditions on motor skill acquisition. Physical Therapy 1991 (71) 150-156
- Marks R, Peripheral mechanisms underlying the signalling of joint position. NZ Journal of Physiotherapie 1997 April
- Mulder T, A process- oriented model of human motor behaviour: toward a theory-based rehabilitation approuch. Physical Therapy 1991 (2) 82-89.
- Winstein CJ, Knowledge of results and motor learning - Implications for physical therapy. Physical Threapy 1991 (71) 140-149.
Literature list Bio-mechanics related:
- Comerford MJ, Gibbons SGT, Kraft versus Stabilität Teil 1 und 2 Manuelle Therapie 2002 (5,6) 13-20.
- Grzebellus M, Schäfer C, Irradiation aus biomechanischer Sicht. Krankengymnastik Zeitschrift für Physiotherapeuten 1998 (9) 1489-1494
- Hodges PW, Richardson CA, Inefficient muscular stabilization of the lumbar spine associated with low back pain. Spine 1996 (22) 2640-2650.
- McQuade KJ, Smidt GL, Dynamic scapulohumeral Rythem: the effects of external resistance during elevation of the arm in the scapular plane. JOSPT 1998 (2) 125-131
- O'Sullivan PB, Twomey LT, Allison GT, Evaluation of specific stabilizing exercise in the treatment of chronic low back pain with radiologic diagnosis of spondylosis or spondylisthesis. Spine 1997 (24) 2959-2967.
- Stiene HA, Brosky T, Reinking MF, Nyland J, Mason BM, A comparison of closed kinetic chain and isokinetic joint isolation exercise in patients with patellofemoral dysfunction. JOSPT 1996 (3) 136- 141.